When Islam emerged from the land of Hejaz in the 7th century A.D. it undoubtedly based and founded one of the most deep-rooted religious reforms ever appeared in the East. The Quran is the first documented paper of this great event, which with evident and clear expressions and words expresses how it uprooted the norms and the ancient, respected tribal values and replaced them with its favorable ideals in that critical period of time. Of the most important points on the position of the Quran in Islam is that it is the mutual and shared point of all Muslims. In this regard, Allameh Tabataba’i mentions: “Although the great religion of Islam has been subject to internal conflicts and division into many branches and groups like other great religions, no Muslim never doubts in the validity, veneration and sanctifying of the Quran”.
In this paper, we intend to talk about some aspects of the Quran: First, we need to investigate if the Quran is a revelation from God or not; and if some distortions and changes have been occurred in it or not. After finding the answers of these two questions, we will investigate any possible differences between the Quran and the holy books of other religions. Whether this book can be considered as a scientific miracle or not; and if yes, what type of miracle it has.
The divinity of the Quran
The first question and problem which is asked about not only the Quran and other holy books, but also about all books and writings, is about the composer and the author and if the work is truly composed by the claimed author or not.
Contrary to the holy books of other religions (Judaism and Christianity), on the validity of which, serious and numerous doubts exist; all the Quran scholars agree that its source was through revelation and all the verses are totally in accordance with the revelations revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). “The Koran is held by Mohammedans to be only of divine origin, but also as eternal and uncreated; remaining, as some express it, in the very essence of God, on which account the Almighty made the miracle of Mohammad to consist in an inimitable style, as exhibited in the Koran“. For a better understanding of these statements, their validity must be evaluated carefully after examining and investigating all the aspects which this paper is looking forward to do so.
Is the Quran available today, the same as the original one or some sort of distortion or change has been made in it? Does any evidence exist concerning the claim that ‘No distortion or change has been made in it’? To ask the question in brief: Has the Quran been distorted or not?
In the American credible website of Pew Research Center we read:
“The Koran was put together, exactly in the same form which we have it today, something like 20 years after the Prophet’s death (in 632), some time around 650 — give or take a few years — the Koran is put together the way it is now”.
The fact that no distortion or change is made in the Quran is mentioned in the websites of a couple of credible research centers such as The Guardian, Live Science, the University of Birmingham. For instance the Guardian discusses a newly discovered script of the Quran which dates back to the first centuries of Islam and says:
“Radiocarbon analysis dates Islamic parchment to period between AD 568 and AD 645.”
It supported the view that the version of the Quran in use today had hardly changed from the earliest recorded version, and the Muslim belief that the text represented an exact record of the revelations delivered to the Prophet.
This website also mentions that: “…it [the script] supported the view that the version of the Qur’an in use today had hardly changed from the earliest recorded version, and the Muslim belief that the text represented an exact record of the revelations delivered to the Prophet.”
The BBC and some other websites also announce that even a single word of the Quran is not changed:
There are 114 chapters in the Qur’an, which is written in the old Arabic dialect.
“There are 114 chapters in the Qur’an, which is written in the old Arabic dialect.“
So, the fact that there is no distortion in the Quran is not only accepted by Muslims, but also non-Muslim Quranic researchers, scholars and research centers declare that no change is made in the Quran.
- Basically, what is the difference between the Quran and other holy books? What has made the Quran different from other books, holy books and writings?
“It is expected from a holy book to contain a guidance plan for the peoples’ lives, not expressing scientific matters; unless where these scientific matters would help better explanation of the guidance plan”. “(The)Quran is not a book of Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Math or Geometry, but a book of Humanization, descended for guiding the human-beings towards divine guidance and spiritual evolution, which is never achievable through human science; so if there are some hints to the scientific matters in various pages of this holy book (some of which have been approved by the science recently) the aim is the divine guidance and spiritual evolution of the human kind; the Almighty God has mentioned some scientific laws in the verses in order to take the attractions to the greatness of this divine book.”
The Quran is a venerable and respected book for Muslims; but Muslims are not the only people who believe this book is miraculous, many of non-Muslims also believe in the greatness of this book and acknowledge in its distinction and magnificence. “One thing which surprises non-Muslims who are examining the book very closely is that the Quran does not appear to them to be what they expected. What they assume is that they have an old book which came fourteen centuries ago from the Arabian Desert; and they expect that the book should look something like that – an old book from the desert. And then they find out that it does not resemble what they expected at all.”
“John Davenport writes in his book, named ‘An Apology for Mohammed and Koran’: (The) Quran is to the extent free from defect that doesn’t even need slightest correction.” “A truly scientific approach to the Quran is possible because the Quran offers something that is not offered by other religious scriptures, in particular, and other religions, in general. It is what scientists demand.”
“Today there are many people who have ideas and theories about how the universe works. These people are all over the place, but the scientific community does not even bother to listen to them. This is because within the last century the scientific community has demanded a test of falsification. They say, ‘If you have theory, do not bother us with it unless you bring with that theory a way for us to prove whether you are wrong or not.’ “
“Such a test was exactly why the scientific community listened to Einstein towards the beginning of the century. He came with a new theory and said, “I believe the universe works like this; and here are three ways to prove whether I am wrong!” So the scientific community subjected his theory to the tests, and within six years it passed all three.”
“This is exactly what the Quran has – falsification tests. Some are old (in that they have already been proven true), and some still exist today. Basically it states, “If this book is not what it claims to be, then all you have to do is this or this or this to prove that it is false.” Of course, in 1400 years no one has been able to do “This or this or this,” and thus it is still considered true and authentic.”
After putting forward the above mentioned points, Gary Miller proposes an interesting suggestion to Muslims and says:
I suggest to you that the next time you get into dispute with someone about Islam and he claims that he has the truth and that you are in darkness, you leave all other arguments at first and make this suggestion. Ask him, “Is there any falsification test in your religion? Is there anything in your religion that would prove you are wrong if I could prove to you that it exists – anything?” Well, I can promise right now that people will not have anything – no test, no proof, nothing! This is because they do not carry around the idea that they should not only present what they believe but should also offer others a chance to prove they’re wrong. However, Islam does that.
A perfect example of how Islam provides humans with a chance to verify if it is valid or false is in Sura At-Tur (the 52nd chapter 31):
أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ ۚ بَلْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ، فَلْيَأْتُوا بِحَدِيثٍ مِثْلِهِ إِنْ كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ.
“Or do they say, “He made it up”? Rather, they do not believe. So let them produce a discourse like it, if they are truthful.”
This verse challenges non-Muslims and asks them to present a book like the Quran. In some other verses, the Quran even asks them to compose just 10 chapters like the ones of the Quran. The interesting point is that the Quran goes on to broaden the challenges and ask them to compose just one chapter like the ones of the Quran, if they are able to do so.
Professor Phillip. K. Hitti, a contemporary American scholar and the professor of the Princeton University, states that “Of all miracles it (the Quran) is the greatest: all men and jinn in collaboration could not produce its like.”
“As a matter of fact, the seriousness and difficulty of the challenge aside, the actual presentation of such a challenge in the first place is not even in human nature and is inconsistent with man’s personality. One doesn’t take an exam in school and after finishing the exam, write a note to the instructor at the end saying, “This exam is perfect. There are no mistakes in it. Find one if you can!” One just doesn’t do that. The teacher would not sleep until he found a mistake! And yet this is the way the Quran approaches people.”
“Does any human dare to author a book and claim that it is the source of guidance for all the people all over the world, either illiterate or professor, man or woman, living today or to live in the future? Can a man, who is a small particle of the universe and who is condemned to evolution, interfere in all fields and state the rules, science, knowledge, advice, anecdotes and stories about the least and the most important affairs of human life and the world which will not become outdated with the progress of human and science? And although we know that people become more experienced with the age; while during years, these rules have not changed even a bit.”
- The eloquence and the literature of the Quran
Unlike other books, the Quran challenges all the people of the past and the future, with any level of knowledge and learning that ‘if you think that my word is not true, to prove your claim, prepare just one chapter like the chapters of mine.’ The Holy Quran challenges all people, but from the very beginning it had made famous Arab literary men who were idolatrous confess to its glory. Abu al-Ala al-Ma’arri, the greatest Arab literary man of all times, confesses to his inability in this challenge; this great man of literature wanted to write a book to be equal to the Quran, but couldn’t and had to confess to his inability. He mentions in his book ‘Resalat Al-Ghufran’ (Epistle of Forgiveness):
“Those who turned to atheism and godlessness, those who were guided and those who turned from the way of justice to misguidance, all agree that the book of Muhammad (PHUH) has defeated all, with its miracle… and if a verse or even a part of a verse of it is compared to the most eloquent speech of the creatures (human-kind), it is just like a brilliant meteor in a dark night.”
These are not the words by an ordinary man, but a unique Arab poet and philosopher, who has written many works; even though he is not a Muslim, he has confessed to the miraculuosness of the Quran.
“Not only Abu al-Ala, but other scholars such as Tufayl ibn Amr al-Dawsi (who turned into Islam because of the miracle of the Quran) and others such as Walid ibn al-Mughirah (who was of the influential and famous Arabs and was entitled as “the flower of the flock of the Arabs”) have confessed to the greatness of the Quran.”
Years and even long centuries have passed from this public challenge by the Quran; not even one single person could challenge the Quran, but day after day, the miracle of the Quran is more widely accepted by Muslims and non-Muslims, Arabs and non-Arabs. Great scholars and researchers of different eras have confessed about and pointed to its miraculuosness.
As an example, the Italian professor Dr. Vaglieri states in this regard:
The miracle of Islam par excellence is the Quran… This is a book which cannot be imitated… There is no model for this style in Arab literature of the times, preceding it. The effect which it produces on the human soul is obtained without any adventitious aid through its own inherent excellences… How could this marvelous book be the work of Muhammad, an illiterate Arab who in all his life composed only two or three verses, none of which reveals the least poetic quality?… We find there, vast stores of knowledge which are beyond the capacity of the most intelligent of men, the greatest of philosophers and the ablest of politicians… Read over and over again all through the Muslim world, this work does not induce in the believer any sense of weariness. On the contrary, through repeated reading it endears itself more and more each day. It arouses a deep sense of reverence and awe in one who reads or hears it… We have still another proof of the divine origin of the Quran in the fact that its text has remained pure and unaltered through the centuries from the day of its delivery until today, and will remain so, God willing, as long as the universe continues to exist.
“In a literary point of view, the Koran is the most poetical work Of the East.… It is universally allowed to be written with the utmost purity and elegance of language in the dialect of the tribe of the Koreish, the most noble and polite of all the Arabs…
- The Quran and Science
The next issue, in which the Quran has challenged all those who oppose it, is science and wisdom. It says ‘if you doubt on the divinity of this book, you all co-operate together and present a book of the same level of science and wisdom.’
وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ.
“And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy and good tidings for the Muslims.”
And in another verse says:
وَعِنْدَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ(انعام، ایه 59).
“And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record.“
A miracle for all the people which would be ever-lasting, must be of the kind of science and wisdom; because anything imagined other than science and wisdom can be felt through senses, so it would not be possible for all the people to see or hear it. The rod of the Moses, David’s voice and any other miracle that is not of the kind of science and wisdom must be of the essence of nature and senses, which would be subject to the laws of physics and be limited to specific place and time. Even if we suppose that all the people on the earth gather in a place and see the miracle, it would be in a specific time, not for ever and all times. But science and wisdom would be a miracle for all the people in all the times.
The Quran has guaranteed the eternity and pureness of its concepts and trainings and considered them as the only righteous things for the people of all generations and in chapter forty-one verse 42 and chapter 15 verse 9 has emphasized that it would never be outdated.
The interesting point about the Quran is that after presenting some information most often informs the readers that theydid not know anything about this matter before. In fact, there is no other book or writing which claims something like this. All other ancient books and writings available have presented some facts to people; but they have always mentioned from where they have had access to the data.
For example, when the ancient history is discussed in the Bible (Judaism and Christianity), it is clearly mentioned that if you are in search of more information, refer to this or that book (because the data is obtained from those books).
In contrast to this concept, the Quran provides the reader with information and also states that this information is something new. Of course, there always exists the advice to research the information provided and verify its authenticity. It is interesting that such a concept was never challenged by non-Muslims fourteen centuries ago. Indeed, the Makkans who hated the Muslims, and time and time again they heard such revelations claiming to bring new information; yet, they never spoke up and said, “This is not new. We know where Muhammad got this information. We learned this at school.” They could never challenge its authenticity because it really was new!
Not only the Meccans who were the stubborn enemies of Islam and the Muslims, but also no other human-being has been able to confront this challenge of the Quran so far; on the contrary, great scholars and thinkers realize the greatness of this book and acknowledge it as a miracle.
Professor Maurice Bucaille studied about the Pharaoh for more than 10 years using the cutting-edge technologies and found out that he had been drowned. He wondered realizing that this fact is mentioned in the Quran: “So today We will save you in body that you may be to those who succeed you a sign. And indeed, many among the people, of Our signs, are heedless”.
He then continued his research on the Quran until he reached the issue of the Pharaoh and his vizier, Haman. For several centuries, the Christians, Jews and antagonists had claimed that no such a character has ever lived; and hence the events about him, described in the Quran, had never happened. God willed to prove the rightfulness and divinity of the Quran; Bucaille went to an expert of the ancient history of Egypt and asked him to transliterate this name, Haman, to the hieroglyphs. Then, the expert brought an encyclopedia of names of people in the New Kingdom of Egypt. The wondrous fact revealed at that moment, Haman meant ‘the head of the workers of the stone mine’.
Bucaille then told that expert: ‘What would you say, if I tell you that I have a 14-century old book which mentions that Haman was the vizier and the head of the architects and ‘Constructors of the Pharaoh?’ The expert was startled and shouted that it was impossible; this name is only mentioned on the hieroglyphs carved on the ancient stones of Egypt, one of which is being stored in the Hofburg museum (Vienna, Austria); and the only person who has stated this fact is he who has deciphered the hieroglyphs in 1822 and knows the meaning of this word.
The expert asked: “Where is hand-written book you are talking about?” Bucaille opened the translated version of the Quran he had with him and said: ‘Read it, the Almighty God says so: “Pharaoh said: ‘O Chiefs! No god do I know for you but myself: therefore [for further research], O Haman! Light me a (kiln to bake bricks) out of clay, and build me a lofty palace, that I may mount up to the god of Moses: but as far as I am concerned, I think (Moses) is a liar!”
More strangely, he then found out a fact which had astonished scientists for centuries and that is: ‘How the Egyptians have lifted the stone blocks for construction of the pyramids?’ Based on the result of their researches and investigations, the Egyptians had made some moulds, shaped like rocks; they used to fill them with some kind of rock soil which was then baked; the result of the process was some blocks which looked like rocks. After analyzing some samples of the rocks used for constructing pyramids, they found out that they are not real solid rocks as they look, but are man-made and have the same age as the pyramids, not older.
No such a thing has been mentioned in any book prior to the Quran; so how could Muhammad the Prophet have been aware of this matter? People have no answer to this question other than confessing to the miracle of the Quran.
Not only Prof. Bucaille, but also some other great scientists such as Dr. Laurence Brown, an ophthalmic surgeon, Prof. Tagatat Tejasen, ex-Chairman of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University in Thailand, French Dr. Grenier, and many other world-class prominent scientists have bowed down to the scientific greatness of this divine book.
Dr. Grenier explains the reason of his conversion into Islam this way: “I studied all the verses of the Quran about natural sciences, hygienic matters and medicine and found them in conformity with the most precise laws of the natural sciences and the most complicated proven rules of the rational sciences and came into certainty that more than a thousand years ago, no one on the earth was aware of them other than God; this way I believed in the rightfulness and divinity of such a book.
It can be stated with certainty that “The Quran
is the only available intact divine book, whose contents are based on nothing
other than science and goodwill”; which
has had a great effect in the contemporary sciences of other continents and
Another interesting point which is seen in the Quran repeatedly is that it is in touch with its readers through advice and counsel. The Quran states various scientific facts and truths to the readers and then advises them to ask the knowledgeable if they want further information about that matter or if they doubt; and this is so amazing and strange that a book, brought by a person who had no training on geography, botany, biology and other sciences, discusses scientific matters and then advises the readers to refer to the informed people if they are in doubt.
There have been some Muslims in any era that have followed this advice and achieved great discoveries. If a person takes a look at the works of the Muslim scientists of the past centuries, he will find many quotations from the Quran in them. They have described the details of the researches carried out in search of scientific matters. They have mentioned that the main reason which made them make researches on different matters and advance in this way, were the hints available in the Quran. For instance, the Quran points out the source of creation and then tells the readers to carry out research in this regard. These hints provide detailed information to the readers, showing them where to begin their research. This book then asks the readers to search for further understanding on that topic. It looks as if the Muslims today are negligent of this advice; but reading the below lines, we realize that it has not always been this way:
“A few years ago, a group of men in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia collected all of the verses in the Quran which discuss embryology – the growth of the human-being in the womb. They said, “Here is what the Quran says. Is it the truth?” In essence, they took the advice of the Quran: “Ask the men who know.” They chose, as it happened, a non-Muslim who is a professor of embryology at the University of Toronto.”
“His name is Keith Moore, and he is the author of textbooks on embryology – a world expert on the subject. They invited him to Riyadh and said, ‘This is what the Quran says about your subject. Is it true? What can you tell us?'”
“While he was in Riyadh, they gave him all the help that he needed in translation and all of the cooperation for which he asked. And he was so surprised at what he found that he changed his textbooks.”
“In fact, in the second edition of one of his books, called Before We Are Born… in the section about the history of embryology, he included some material that was not in the first edition because of what he found in the Quran was ahead of its time and that those who believe in the Quran know what other people do not know.”
“He mentioned that some of the things that the Quran states about the growth of the human being were not known until thirty years ago. In fact, he said that one item in particular – the Quran’s description of the human being as a “leech-like clot” (‘alaqah) [Ghafir 40:67] – was new to him;” but the correctness and accuracy of it was proven to him and he added it to his book.
“Dr. Moore also wrote a book on clinical embryology, and when he presented this information in Toronto, it caused quite a stir throughout Canada. All of the descriptions in the Quran of the appearance of the embryo are of the item when it is still too small to see with the eye; therefore, one needs a microscope to see it. Such a device had only been around for little more than two hundred years.”
In an embryology-related article in the International Journal of Health Sciences, after acknowledging the Quran as the greatest miracle, the author says:
“The greatest miracle is the Holy Quran”
“Modern embryology is a fairly recent development which has its beginning with the invention of microscope in the 17th century. But the scientists then and most Muslim and non-Muslim scholars do not even know that the holy Quran and Islamic laws had provided a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum.””
“Who would reveal this information to him except the CREATOR Himself!”
“The scientific miracles of the Quran have become apparent for scholars, either in its system, or the news about the ancestors and prophecies of the future. The miraculous quality of the Quran which has become popular today is either because it covers all the miraculous aspects of the Quran and Sunnah, or because of realizing the sciences of the cosmos utilizing the Quran.”
Marcel Boisard, a Swiss Orientalist, in his book named ‘L’Islam aujourd’hui (Islam today)’ says: “The Quran is not a technical book, but its essence is close to science. It has been a literary and unique literary book in all ages and will be. Yet, it was analyzed in the recent past by scholars in a scientific perspective and it was admired and their findings are exceptional. This fact reveals the great ‘miracles of the Qur’an’. The book is full of pieces of information that could only be understood and confirmed by modern discoveries: genetics, philology, physics, biology, medicine, cosmology, etc.”
Another interesting quality of the Quran is its discussions on interesting phenomena, not known in the past, but also in modern times. In fact, the Quran is not a topic which belongs to the far past, but a present-day topic; and it is a serious question among non-Muslims and antagonists today. That is because as time passes day-by-day and week-by-week and year-by-year, new evidences are found that the Quran is so strong that its validity cannot be challenged. For an example, consider this verse: “Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?”
“In many verses, the Qur’an discusses the order of the universe, the laws of nature, the celestial bodies, and other subjects that could not be understood at the beginning of Islam, except through divine revelation.” It is irrational and against the scientific approach to believe that mentioning these scientific facts in the Quran is something accidental. The Quran calls all humans to think about the creation of the earth and the skies (heavens). Scientific clues, available in the Quran, clearly show the divine source of this book, no man 14 centuries ago could be able to compose a book containing such deep scientific truths; facts which are discovered by scientific scholars centuries later. Despite all the above, we must keep in mind that the Quran is not a book of just science; but a book of the signs. Signs which make man think about the main objective of the existence of mankind on the earth and of living in harmony with the nature. The Quran is in fact the message of the God, the Creator of the universe. The Quran includes the same message of monotheism that all Prophets, from Adam to Muhammad, have preached.
“Prof. Tagatat Tejasen (The Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University in Thailand) converted to Islam only because the truth in one verse..” Some people may need to read 10 verses, some other 100, to be convinced about the divinity of the Quran. Some others may not be eager to accept the truth even after reading thousand verses. The Quran describes the closed minds as: “Deaf, dumb and blind – so they will not return [to the right path]” (Chapter 2, verse 18).
Centuries before Muhammad (PBUH), a famous theory was proposed by the Greek philosopher Democritus. He and his followers used to believe that all materials are made of really tiny perishable and inseparable particles named ‘atoms’. Arabs also were familiar with this concept; the Arabic word for particle (dharrah, ذرة) normally was used for the tiniest possible particle known to man. Today, the modern science has discovered that this tiniest unit of any material named ‘atom’, which has all the attributes of that element, can be separated to its sub-particles; which can be analyzed. This idea is a new one, which is a result of advancement in science during the recent century; but the interesting point is that these facts are written and documented in the Quran: ‘And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom’s weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register’
“Undoubtedly, fourteen centuries ago that statement would have looked unusual, even to an Arab. For him, the dharrah was the smallest thing there was. Indeed, this is proof, that the Quran is not outdated.”
“As has already been mentioned, much information is contained in the Quran whose source cannot be attributed to anyone other than Allah. For example, who told Muhammad about the wall of Dhul-Qarnayn – a place hundreds of miles to the north (of Hijaz)? Who told him about embryology?”
Maurice Bucaille says: “In view of the level of knowledge in Muhammad’s day, it is inconceivable… not only to regard the Quran as the expression of a Revelation, but also to award it a very special place.” “…The Prophet Muhammad was illiterate, a view that reinforces the doctrine of the miraculous character of the Qur’an; if the Prophet could neither read or write, so the argument goes, then his reception of a text of surpassing beauty and wisdom must be a divine revelation.”
Turning of Prof. Tejasen (The Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University in Thailand) to Islam occurred after 3 years of research on the verses of the Holy Quran:
“I believe that everything recorded in the Quran 14 hundreds years ago, can be proved by scientific means. Since the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write, Muhammad must be a massager who relayed this truth, which was revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is eligible (as the) creator. The creator must be God; Therefore I think it’s the time to say:
[Ashhadu anna] La Ila ha Ila Allah; [Ashhadu anna] Muhammad rasoolu-Allah
[I testify that] there is no God except Allah, and [I testify that] Muhammad is Allah’s messenger“
“Whose work can a 14-century-old book, being discussed in the most credible world-class scientific centers of the 21st century and approved from scientific, moral and other aspects, be other than the creator of the universe? Bernard Shaw, British Philosopher says: ‘I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.’“
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(Islam Today), Paris, UNESCO Pub., 1985
 Allameh Tabataba’i, The Qur’an in Islam (قران در اسلام), p.3
 David Tracy, Robert Grant, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible, p.299, https://epdf.tips/a-short-history-of-the-interpretation-of-the-bible.html
 John Davenport, An Apology for Mohammed and Koran, p.62, https://archive.org/details/apologyformohamm00dave/page/64
 Pew Research Center, Michael Cook, How and Why Muhammad Made a Difference, www.pewforum.org/2006/05/22/how-and-why-muhammad-made-a-difference/
 The Guardian, Maev Kennedy, ‘Oldest’ Quran fragments found at Birmingham University, https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/22/oldest-quran-fragments-found-at-birmingham-university, It also contains a video clip of the script.
 Live Science, Elizabeth Goldbaum, 1,500-Year-Old Quran Manuscript Could Be Oldest Known Copy, https://amp.livescience.com/51638-quran-manuscript-oldest-known-copy.html
 University of Birmingham, Birmingham Qur’an manuscript dated among the oldest in the world, www.birmingham.ac.uk/news/latest/2015/07/quran-manuscript-22-07-15.aspx, It also contains a video clip of the script.
 . سایت گاردین (به همراه فیلم از نسخه) https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/22/oldest-quran-fragments-found-at-birmingham-university
و سایت بی بی سی
و سایت لایوساینس
و سایت دانشگاه بیرمنگام
 . بی بی سی انگلستان
و چند منبع دیگر
The holy Quran, English Translation and Commentary, https://goo.gl/bXbcnN
 More information on the Quran, can be studied in below pages:
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/texts/quran_1.shtml, BBC, English
- https://www.britannica.com/topic/Quran, The encyclopedia of Britannica
- Also: https://goo.gl/mcMBQB
The holy Quran, English Translation and Commentary, https://goo.gl/bXbcnN
 Michael Bahari, A Bit of the Eternity (ذرهای از بی نهایت), 2015, Danesh-yaran Iran Pub., ISBN: 9786007859285, p.16 (Foreword) of the Persian book
 Bahari, A Bit of the Eternity (ذرهای از بی نهایت), pp.16-17 of the Persian book & Miṣbāḥ Yazdī, Mu‘ārif-e Qur’ān (The Teachings of the Qur’ān): theology, cosmology and anthropology (معارف قرآن: خداشناسی،–کیهان شناسی،–انسان شناسی), p.229
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, p.1, introduction
 Mir-Shekar Mubarakeh, Sayings of the others [حدیث دیگران], p.8 of the Persian book, quoting from: John Davenport, An Apology for Mohammed and Koran, p.62, https://archive.org/details/apologyformohamm00dave/page/64
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, p.10
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, pp.10 & 11
 . طور، ایه 33-34
ترجمه: آنها می گویند: قرآن را از پیش خود ساخته [و به خدا نسبت داده است؟ چنین نیست که می پندارند]، بلکه [قرآن وحی الهی است، ولی اینان] ایمان نمی آورند. پس اگر راست مىگويند، سخنى مثل آن بياورند. طور، ایه 33-34
 Quran, chapter 52 [At-Tur], verses 33 & 34
 Quran, chapter 11 [Hud], verse 13: Or do they say, “He invented it?” Say: Then produce ten chapters like it, invented, and call upon whomever you can, besides God, if you are truthful.
 Quran, chapter 2 [Al-Baqara], verse 23: And if you are in doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like these, and call your witnesses apart from God, if you are truthful.
 Allameh Tabataba’i, An Excursion in Quran (سیری در قرآن), p.24 of the original Persian book
 Mir-Shekar Mubarakeh, Sayings of the others [حدیث دیگران], p.19 of the Persian book, quotation from Prof. Phillip Hitti; Phillip K Hitti, The Arabs: A Short History, p.37
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, p.12
 Allameh Tabataba’i, An Excursion in Quran (سیری در قرآن), pp.12 & 13 of the original Persian book
 Abu al-ʿAlaʾ al-Maʿarri, Resalat Al-Ghufran (Epistle of Forgiveness), p.472 of the original Arabic book
 Muhammad Hadi Marifat, Introduction to the Science of the Quran [علوم قرآنی], p.297 of the original Persian book
 Muhammad Hadi Marifat, Introduction to the Science of the Quran [علوم قرآنی], p.296 of the original Persian book, also:
Shaykh Tabrasi, Tafsir Majma’ Al-Bayan [تفسیر مجمعالبیان], volume 10, p.584 of the original Persian book, and:
Naser Makarem Shirazi, Tafsir Nemooneh [تفسیر نمونه], volume 25, p.225 of the original Persian book
 Dr. Laura Veccia Vaglieri, An interpretation of Islam, 1958, p.40-42, https://archive.org/details/AnInterpretationOfIslamByLauraVecciaVaglieri
 John Davenport, An Apology for Mohammed and Koran, p.64, https://archive.org/details/apologyformohamm00dave/page/64
 . نحل، ایه 89
ترجمه: و ما این کتاب را بر تو نازل کردیم که بیانگر همه چیز، و مایه هدایت و رحمت و بشارت برای مسلمانان است.
“And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy and good tidings for the Muslims.”
 The Quran, Chapter 16 [Nahl], verse 89
 . طباطبایی، سیری در قران، ص 15. ترجمه: کلیدهای غیب، تنها نزد اوست؛ و جز او، کسی آنها را نمیداند. او آنچه را در خشکی و دریاست میداند؛ هیچ برگی (از درختی) نمیافتد، مگر اینکه از آن آگاه است؛ و نه هیچ دانهای در تاریکیهای زمین، و نه هیچ تر و خشکی وجود دارد، جز اینکه در کتابی آشکار [= در کتاب علم خدا] ثبت است.
And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record.
 The Quran, Chapter 6 [An’am], verse 59; also:
Allameh Tabataba’i, An Excursion in Quran [سیری در قرآن], p.15 of the original Persian book
 Allameh Tabataba’i, An Excursion in Quran [سیری در قرآن], pp.13 & 14 of the original Persian book
 “Falsehood cannot approach it from before it or from behind it; [it is] a revelation from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy”, chapter 41 [Fussilat], verse 42 and “Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian”, chapter 15 [Al-Hijr], verse 9
 Allameh Tabataba’i, An Excursion in Quran [سیری در قرآن], p.15 of the original Persian book
 Some of the citations in the Bible:
The Old Testament, Numbers 21:14, referring to ‘the Book of the Wars of the LORD’
The Old Testament, Joshua 10:12-13 & 2 Samuel 1:18-27, quoting form ‘the Book of Jasher’
The Old Testament, 1 Kings 14:19, referring to ‘the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel’
The Old Testament, 1 Kings 14:29, referring to ‘the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah’
The Old Testament, 1 Kings 11:41, referring to ‘The Book of The Acts of Solomon’
The Old Testament, 2 Chronicles 33:18, referring to ‘the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel’
Other books referred to in the Bible:
- The book of Samuel the seer
- The book of the Acts of Nathan the Prophet
- The Book of Nathan the Prophet
- The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite and some other books
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, pp. 19 & 20
 Quran, chapter 10 [Yūnus], verse 92
 Quran, chapter 28 [Al-Qasas], verse 38
Details of this event in: questionsonislam.com/article/haman-and-ancient-egyptian-scriptures
Related video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCdbNC5oW0g
Also in this regard: http://mquran.org/content/view/9220/12
 Michael Bahari, A Bit of the Eternity [ذرهای از بی نهایت], 2015, Danesh-yaran Iran Pub., ISBN: 9786007859285, p.20 of the Persian book
 Yadollah Sahabi, The Holy Quran, Evolution and Creation of the Human (قرآن مجید، تکامل و خلقت انسان), 2009, p.160 of the original Persian book
 “So ask the people of the message if you do not know”, The Quran, Chapter 16 [Nahl], verse 43
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, pp. 13 & 14
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, pp. 14 & 15
 Mohammed Rateb al-Nabulsi, Encyclopedia of Scientific Miracles in the Quran and Sunnah (موسوعة الاعجاز العلمي في القرآن والسنة), Vol. 1: Signs of God in Man (آيات الله في الإنسان), p.7 (chapter: Miracles in Quran and Sunnah) of the original Arabic book
 Quran, Chapter 21 [Al-Anbiya], verse 30
 Ali-Hassan Matar Al-Hashimi, A Critical Look at the History of the Quran by The Orientalist Theodor Nöldeke, p.172
 Quran, Chapter 3 [āl-ʿimrān], verse 190: Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day, there are signs for those who possess intellects.
 Quran, Chapter 4 [An-Nisa], verse 56:”Those who reject Our signs, We shall soon Cast into the Fire; As often as their skins Are roasted through, We shall change them For fresh skins, That they may taste The Penalty: for Allah Is Exalted in Power, Wise.”
 Zakir Naik, The Quran And Modern Science, compatible or incompatible?, p. 46
 Routledge History of Philosophy, Vol.1, p.380 & Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy, p.148
 Quran, Chapter 10 [Yūnus], verse 61
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, p. 5
 Gary Miller, The Amazing Quran, p.27
 Ali-Hassan Matar Al-Hashimi, A Critical Look at the History of the Quran by The Orientalist Theodor Nöldeke, p.178; Quoting from Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, The Quran and Science (La Bible, le Coran et la Science), p. 164 of the English translation
 Carl Ernst, FOLLOWING MUHAMMAD-Re-thinking Islam in the Contemporary World, p. 96
 The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936
 Mir-Shekar Mubarakeh, Sayings of the others [حدیث دیگران], p.51 of the Persian book