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Human Rights Abuses by Saudi Dynasty

Human Rights Abuses by Saudi Dynasty

Human Rights Abuses by Saudi Dynasty

22% of SA population has been comprised of Shiites. In the recent eight decades elapsing from Saudi Family kingdom, Shiites in the kingdom have encountered many discriminations and confinements that it is aiming to discuss here.

Saudis history and background

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has commented:

“تفترق أمتي علي ثلاث و سبعين فرقة، كلها في النار إلا فرقة واحدة؛ “

“My nation will scattered into 73 sects and other than one the rest will be in fire (hell).”

(Mizan Al-Etedal lelzahabi V 2, P 430

Lesan Almizan V 3, P 291

Tafsir Alrazi V 1, P 3

Tfsir Ibn Kasir V 2, P 482

Alkamel V 6, P 166)

Today cities of Saudi Arabia have gotten the cradle of Wahhabism propaganda. In a way that all Wahhabis in all over the world seen themselves attributed to and aspired by Saudis’ Wahhabism and their propaganda and obliged to propagate for their believes and thoughts. Today Wahhabism is mainly attributed to Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab[1]. He started off his thoughts in 1737AC and more established his first political government in AC in Najd area in the suburb of Riyadh and then made a military and cultural treaty with Muhammad Ibn Saud[2] – The King Fahad’s and The King Abdulla’s ancestor and with the aid of British military counselors they both spread the sect and Wahhabi thought.

With the start of slaughtering inside the Aria peninsula and raids to other countries Usmani government wrote a severe stated letter to Egypt and sent a well-equipped troop to the region and in this way in 1818 AC they closed the file of Wahhabism Government with the heads execution but a number of the heads pursued a hidden life or took refuge in the neighboring countries. One of those was Abdul Aziz-The King Fahad’s father- who rose up from Kuwait and after twenty years struggle he re-established Saudi Arabia State in 1922.

But Wahhabis background does not go back only to the two recent centuries also one cannot seek the Wahhabis roots merely in the thinking bases of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab. But we should page much more backward in the history. We see that although Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab conspired with Muhammad Ibn Saud and British spies in political and issues and Muslims slathering, but in terms of thinking principles and believes he was only reviver and propagator of Ibn Tamiya[3]. The Ibn Tamiya’s era is having called the to the period of degeneracy and turing Muslims including Shiites and Sunnis to the religion appearance and superficial attention to the solid and fanatical religious codes.

Of the main misleading of Ibn Tamiya’s thoughts include as below:

  1. Considering a body for Allah.
  2. Considering a place for God’s location like a bulk.
  3. Considering resemblance to bulks and creatures for Allah.
  4. Denying the Prophet’s spiritual dignity after his decease.
  5. Denying pilgrimage and intercession for the prophets, holy persons and the good.
  6. Insulting to the Prophet’s companions.
  7. But the worse misleading is that he has called all Muslims as pagan.

Salafis whose leader is Ibn Tamiya would say that: each practice which has not existed and has not done in the Prophet’s time, it is not allowable to be done in subsequent either. Ibn Tamiya extracted three more principles from this general principle:

  1. No benefactor or a friend of Allah’s friends must be taken a means to get close to Allah.
  2. To no alive or dead person shall be taken refuge and no one shall seek help from anybody.
  3. To no tomb one shall seek Tabarrok nor bow.

Again when we study the Ibn Tamiya’s books we observe that he was has not the inventor of this invalid anti-Quranic and anti-Islamic thought but a few of Hanbali scholars about two or three centuries before Ibn Tamiya have carried such believes. For instance, Ibn Bottah-of famous Hanbali scholars, dies in 387 AH has released the same issues, in way he has even considered as sinful for a journey to pilgrimage the Prophet’s shrine.

But even before Ibn Bottah Hassan Ibn Ali Barbahari-of Hanbali characters and died in 329 AH- has also issued this before Ibn Tamiya, Mohammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab and Ibn Bottah. Even he has finished obscenity by saying that:

Not only mourning for Ahl Al-Bait (AS) is Haram (forbidden) but also murdering of those who have been mourning and sung dirge for Ahl Al-bait (AS) is Vajeb (mandatory).

Indeed before Barbahari, also Hajjaj Ibn Yosef Saqafi-died in 95 AH and the big slayer of Islam History- has had such believes.

The Wahhabism thought is that thought of first and second Hejri centuries in a way that today for Wahhabism presence of Muslims in vicinity of the dignified Prophet’s tomb and giving love to him is not tolerable and no one –irrespective to his or her religion whether Shiite, Sunni, Hanafi, Malaki or even Hanbali dares to touch Holy Shrine unless he/she would face the whips of Wahhabi agents.

Again we page the history. When Marvan Ibn Hakam sees people have fallen on the Prophet’ tomb and giving love to the Prophet on the tomb’s soils this is not tolerable to him and takes the throat of one of those, tightly squeezes and then says:

“Do you know what you are doing?”

That man was Abu Ayyub Ansari that looked at Marvan and said “I heard from the dignified Prophet that commented: “in competent and merit persons are on the throne there would be no cause for grief, the grief is on the day incompetent persons are on the throne.” “.

But when we return more back in the history before Marvan this thought of Ani-Ahalbait comes out of Yazid Ibn Moavieh’s tongue-the gist of corruption and Islam’s stigma- and when he puts his dirty eyes on the Holy Imam Hussein’s Head (AS) says:

I wish my ancestors who were killed in Badr and Ohod, were present here and said thank you oh Yazid, you took well our revenge.

Tarik Al-Tabari Vol.8, P.188.

If we study the Wahhabism believes entirely and completely we can summarize their thoughts in one single sentence that is “Omission of Ahl Al-Bait (AS) from Islamic Culture” which also returns to the primitive decades of Islam history.

Conspiracy of Ahl-Al-Bait omission from Islamic culture was constructed indeed in that early ages of Islam by Omavieh ancestry and today in information era, Wahhabism of which Saudi ancestry is at the top, is continuing the Omavieh’ plot. Even we can easily work out that Ahlalbait omission cannot be the final goal but they have been aiming to put Islam itself under severe doubts and then to omit Prophet Mohammad himself from humankind mind through this.

Because they realized that they are not able to combat explicitly against Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and order people not to word the name of the Graceful Prophet (PBUH) and even omit his name from the Quran. Since Ahl Al-Bait (AS) are rela gesture of Islam and repeater of the Excellency Muhammad’s (PBUH) culture, they thus started to combat against the Prophet family (AS) and have been trying to omit them in order subsequently to omit the Prophet’s name from the Islamic societies. Amir al-Mu’minin[4] Imam Ali (AS) has issued such matter frankly:

“أللهم إني استعديك على قريش، فإنهم أضمروا لرسولك صلى الله عليه و آله ضروبا من الشر و الغدر، فعجزوا عنها و حلت بينهم و بينها، فكانت الوجبة بي و الدائرة على، أللهم احفظ حسنا و حسينا”. (إبن أبي الحديد در شرح نهج البلاغة، جلد20، صفحه298)

Oh Allah, help me in against Quraysh[5]. These were growing up the conspiracy of perishing the dignified Prophet (PBUH) in their minds but they couldn’t, Oh Allah, you stood supportively between the Quraysh’s conspiracy and the dignified Prophet (PBUH). [But] they took the revenge on me and what they desired to do against the Prophet they did on me. [Then] Amir al-Mu’minin (AS) raised his hands and said “Oh Allah! Protect Hassan and Hussein[6] against Quraysh.”

Sheikh Abdullah Ben Jabari of the Muftis[7] and second person in Saudi Arabia and Abdor Rahman Barraj of important Saudi Arabian characters have released various Fatwa’s[8] against Shiite and Ahl Albait (AS), which among them:

“Going to Imams’ shrines is a kind of paganism (idle worshipping) and today Shiite Imam’s shrines are real signs of Allat and Al-Uzza[9]. As the Prophet fought against paganism and these goddesses, today we Muslims-Wahhabis- ought to rise to diminish the signs of heresy and paganism too. “

Therefore after destruction of the Holy Shrines of Asgariain[10] (AS) they congratulate to each other in their internet websites. Even after destruction of the second bombing the put out an announcement by the effect that Amir Al-Mumenin’s shrine and Imam Hussein’s shrine and The Excellency Zeinab[11]’s (AS) shrine shall also be destroyed.

Considering this historical background in Arabia peninsula we can realize that why Saudis are insisting on harassing and slaughtering the Shiite in their own country and neighboring countries because Shiite is only religion that is keeping alive the names and routes of Ah Al-Bait (AS).

A sample of this slathering is terroristic operation in Shiite mosque in Dammam[12] just few times ago in which 21 people was martyred and more than 120 was injured.

Most of human rights abuse cases in Saudi Arabia emphasize on extreme cruelty on Shiites and widespread abuses of their right by the regime.

In Islam Times’ report we read: “Freedom of religion and belief in Saudi Arabia is on its worst situation, Shiites are not allowed to pray freely in their own mosques.” In another part of this report much more concerning materials have been issued such as that opponents in Saudi Arabia are never allowed to deal with their political and social activities, express their opinions freely and accordingly many of opponent writers have been residing whether in London or are having been kept in custody for long years so that they are known as forgotten prisoners. The escalation of domestic situation of this country in terms of human rights abuses has reached to the point that even the country’s allies get obliged at last apparently to take reactions against the widespread human rights abuses by Saudis.

In this regards, the High Commissioner for Human Rights express his deep concerns about frightening and prosecution of people in Saudi Arabia due to implementation of their own rights and fundamental freedoms. Also a few American Congressmen just few days before Obama’s recent trip to Riyadh in reaction to human rights abuses in this country had asked Obama “to put pressure on Riyadh due to open and systematic human rights abuse in that country in his trip to Saudi Arabia”.

Cases of human rights abuses by the Saudi regime have been widespread in a fashion that only prisons situation is only one of many. Few times ago Amnesty International organization once more by condemnation of Saudi Arabian regime due to open human rights abuse expressed concern on refugees’ conditions in this country. It has reported that “refugees in Saudi Arabia are facing unbridled custodies, unjust trails and torture.” This organization had significantly accused Arabian State of prevention over free investigation on human rights situation in the country by means of financial and oil resources. In the end of this report Amnesty International organization had requested Saudi Arabia’s officials once again to determine the situation of detained refugees in this country as soon as possible. But few time later Arabian media casted pictures of Yemenis refugees in the country that caused an agony in common sense. Even so international societies and a few Arab countries in front of these crimes have taken silence and even UN either does not deal with such atrocities and human rights abuses.

Many detainees and people who have been tortured and oppressed have requested for help and support from international societies for many times but they not only received any help but also are witnessing more freedom in action being given to Saudis’ State for committing its crimes.

Abuse in three first principles of human rights by Saudis in oppression of the Shiites

Article 1.

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.

  • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

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Article 3.

  • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

  • Religious Discriminations

Shiites are severely deprived of construction of mosques and mourning places[13] or even of repair of the building. Even for publishing their own religious books and leaflets, cultural activities, rehearsing religious ceremonies are under pressure in a way even naming children with Shiite names such as Imams’ names has been declared as forbidden.

  • Political discriminations

Shiites are deprived of all governmental careers and in the affairs of their own regions they have no right of autonomy.

  • Economical deprivations

Even though Shiites are residing in areas near to Gnawer Field (of the biggest oil fields in the world) have gotten taken part a slight share of man power of oil companies in the region especially in ARAMCO and during recent years they have been whether got fired or exploited in low working positions.

Collection of these discrepancies has caused Shiites to rise against these cruel approaches in an opposing movement that they have faced to testified oppression. During these disturbances many got martyred by shot and many arrested, prosecuted and denied permission to leave the country. In the latest case of these oppressions Saudi regime committed to arrest “Al-Sheikh Namur Bagher Al-Namar” of the Shiite opponent leaders in June, 8th, 2012 and after his prosecution in absence of any attorney and behind closed doors they sentenced this Shiite scholar to death.

Human rights abuses in Saudi Judicial laws

Article 5.

  • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

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Article 6.

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

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Article 7.

  • All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

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Article 8.

  • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

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Article 9.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

 

Article 10.

  • Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

 

Judicial situation in Saudi Arabia

Despite almost all of the countries in the world, Saudi Arabia possesses no written judicial law, and this has left the judges free and with absolute freedom to verdict ageist political and social activists. Arabian officials exploit this unwritten legal procedure as a practical means for stifling environment to subject political activists to prosecution, unreal and artificial accusations, unjust trials and prolonged detentions. Lacking a written judicial process has caused the citizens not to have access to any piece of information about the punitive crimes.

Of the other mentionable cases are unbridled and prolonged arrests without explanation of the accusation and without legal procedure and trial that has stimulated criticism of human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch. This organization in the report of September 21th, 2014 entitled “Arabia should terminate unbridled arrests” in the meanwhile of severe criticism has expressed that Saudi Arabia should announce on the legal basis of hundreds of arrests of people and taken actions to cease the unbridled arrests. In this report it has been mentioned that 293 people of Arabia citizens without their file being referred to legal and judicial system have been taken in detention for more than 6 months before trial.

In a report by “France 24” news channel 23 prisoners were put in a cell with 5 by 6 meters area in which they were obliged to sleep in standing posture.

In 2011 a number of Shiite prisoners of “Al-Dammam” jail in protest of bad conditions in a letter to the officials expressed in a corridor that has 6 cells and 6 toilets with maximum capacity for 60 people, more than 250 prisoners are kept. In another report by Arabia’s National Society for Human Rights in September 12th 2012 due to severe protest against critical hygienic situation in prisons it was mentioned that one of the prisoners named “Naïf Almeri” because of infected to tuberculosis and shortage of medical supplies has perished.

Police officers and sometimes prosecutors physically torture the accused to take them admission. Prevailing this conditions has led Human Rights Watch Organization to express its serious concern in a report released in December 2013 on maltreatment with the accused in the temporary custodies watched by General Office of Investigation (Almabahes) and asked Saudi Arabian State to re-consider this process as soon as possible.

 

Human rights abuse in the situation of immigrated workers in Saudi Arabia

Human Rights Principles:

Article 23 Provisions 1 and 2: Every Human has right to own occupation and be free in occupation adoption, have fair and satisfactory working circumstances and deserve being supported against unemployment. Ever Human deserves to receive equal labor with no discrimination for work.

Article 23 Provision 3: Everyone who works deserves to receive fair and satisfactory labor to provide himself and his family needs complying with human dignity and grace.

Article 24: Every Human deserves rest and leisure times, limited and acceptable time for work and periodical vacancies including salary.

 

About Saudi Arabia: half of the working power in this county are immigrated workers whose population counted up 9 million people. But due to unsuitable labor regulations, these workers are of susceptible and deprived people of the society and are being bused by the employers. These people work 15-20 hour a day and exploited every seven days of the week.

Human rights abuses in freedom in speech and opinion in Saudi Arabia

Human Rights Principles:

Article 18: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

According to 2013 report of “Reporters without Borders” in the index of freedom of speech factor Saudi Arabia during recent has assigned 163th ranking among 179 countries oft eh world during these years. Statics reveal this country has more than 30000 political prisoners of which most are religious prisoners and mainly of the Shiites of eastern areas of Arabia. The other minority are Christians whose conditions are not so much different to the Shiites so that the Arabia’s great Mufti in 2012 asked for demolishment of all the churches across the country.

Non-governmental organizations and parties establishments in this country are forbidden and activists in these fields would face severe judicial consequences.

Human Rights abuse in the situation of women in Saudi Arabia

Human Rights Principles:

Article3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 21 Provision 2: Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

Article 25 Provision 1: Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

Article 26 Provision 1: Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

Article 27 Provision 1: Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

Women Rights Abuses in Saudi Arabia include:

  • Driving prohibition for women
  • No right for voting by women
  • Limitation on education for girls
  • Prohibition on financial activities for women
  • Prohibition on women presence in the society
  • Prohibition on women travelling without their male Mahrams[14]
  • Strict control on women’s Hijab[15].
  • Prohibition on sport for women
  • Prohibition on surgery on women without consent of their husband, father, grandfather, brother or any other male guardian.
  • Prohibition of opening a file in the court without companion of any her male Mahram.

All these are prevailing while human rights organizations and those of observer on Saudi Arabia news have bolted special concerns on the conditions of women prisoner in this country. In the field, a few times earlier ILAF news website broadcasted severe violation implemented on women prisoners in “Al-Safah” Jail. In accordance with this report 7 women as protest against violence against themselves and too much delay on their verdict notification they had gone on hunger strike. After this action, the security officers pulled the seven prisoners out of their cells and harshly tortured so that five of them got ready to sign some written document with unknown contents after one day. Security officials deprived that two other prisoners (Sharifeh Al-Saghbi and Hoda Al-Arini) from water for three days! It is noteworthy that for all woman prisoners in Saudi Arabia fetters are used as well as handcuffs, a harsh treatment that has been superseded in almost all jails of the world!!

Of the other psychic and physical tortures of women prisoners in Saudi Arabia, installation of 24 watch cameras in prisons even in the bathes and toilets and misuse of recorded footages.

Kinds of punishment and torture in Saudi Arabia

For centuries until now execution verdict has been performed in form of beheading in public. Also punishment of had cut-off for everyone who have committed of burglary is being done. Beheading or decapitating is a kind of execution in which the human head at his/her throat is cut with a cutting device like as a knife; or they hit the victims’ throat a strong strike in behind by a sword, scimitar, ax or any other heavy cutting tool.

While Saudi Arabia is claiming has allied with the US and other countries for combatting against DAESH terrorists and their atrocities, right now Saudi Arabia’s similar measures such as beheading the convicted have been internationally criticized and protested cases. But Saudis not only paid any attention to these protests but also for hiring new executioners they have even publicly job-offered! According to a job-offer which is put out in internet site of Ministry of Civil Service this country’s state is employing eight new executioners for beheading the criminals. This is in conditions that Saudis have broken their own record in total 2014 from start of 2015 by now with executing 85 people.

Penal punishments in Saudi Arabia are still following outdated and inhuman methods such as decapitating, hand cut-off, stoning, whipping to death, torturing by means of inhuman and illegal measures … that in many of cases these punishments have been executed on innocents. For example the judge of one of the courts of this country sentenced a woman named “Susan Salim” to 300 whips and one year and half imprisonment for accusation of getting present in the court without one of her Mahrams. In another case Saudi officials did not allow a two-year child named “Mohammad Salman Ali Al-Faraj” born in “Al-Awamieh[16]” area to be receipted and treated by a governmental hospital. Also Saudi officials refused giving pass port to this child’s family to get cure outside the country. This deprivation for this two-year child of his general rights has been a part of consequences of Saudi allegation to the father for attendance in peaceful demonstration.

According to reports of Saudi judicial references yearly in this country nearly 100 people are being decapitated for execution verdict and this in a country which is known as cradle of Islam between all countries in the world has caused Islam to be shown harsh and blowing in the fire of Islamophobia conspiracy.

Regional experts believe if process of executions continues in this routine in Saudi Arabia the country would face wave of protests against this because many of verdicts have not been based on sufficient and absolute documents and are accounted for out-of-the-law. Christophe Hinz, the UN reporter and professor of University of Pretoria declared in his report to the UN that Saudi Arabia in amongst three first countries in the world in death executions and is the first that executes decapitation to this extend.   He writes in his report: in most of countries sentence to death is mostly executed for homicide but in Saudi Arabia this verdict is easily assigned for other crimes too. Christophe Hinz points to another problem of Judicial centers in Saudi Arabia and ads: Many of Saudi courts are being held behind closed doors and even in absence of advocate the hearing meeting are held and this is revealing unjust verdicts issued by judicial system in this country.

The prisoners’ situation and their tortures are far from human rights provisions and human ethics. According to a report by Al-Alam News Website, a tape leaked away recently from one of Saudi jails reveals the jail’s officials in the meantime of completely making the prisoners naked, they implement different types of psychic and spiritual tortures on them. Saudi officials use different methods of torture which are so similar to those implanted by Americans in Abu Ghraib prison[17] in Iraq as well as to Guantanamo Bay detention camp[18] and secret American detention camps, and surprisingly Saudi officials have called these places as rehabilitating centers.

Saudi government despite complaints and protests of the prisoners’ relatives to what is being done in these centers have still taken silence and no explanation is given in this matter. On the other side Al-Menar TV Channel revealed in a report French Special Forces have taken the responsibility of torturers team training known as “Lions of Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz” related to Saudi Interior Ministry. Al-Manar has mentioned the aim of these trainings to the torturers team known as “Lions of Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz” for suppressing the public protests in Bahrain and Shiite residing town of Al-Ghatif in the east of Saudi Arabia. “Lions of Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz” the Suppressor Unit related to Saudi Interior Ministry which was taken over by Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud for decades. This Unit is Suppressor Unit of Interior Ministry of Saudi Arabia which is responsible for running tens of jails and implementing the most brutal tortures and is directly being led by Muhammad bin Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, son of Nayef and after his death.

Saudi Regime used this Unit in occupation of Bahrain, which is so notorious between Saudi Arabian citizens and other Arabic countries’ people of Persian Gulf and its name fears all.

Despite so many evidences and documents for widespread human rights abuses in Saudi Arabia we are still witness that western colonists and even the UN itself have done not only anything against these atrocities but also they have widespread the atrocities by providing their financial and political supports to this bloodthirsty and savage regime.

 

[1] 1703 -1792 AC

[2] Died 1765 AC, the founder of First Saudi State and the Saud dynasty

[3] Died in 1328, was a Islamic scholar from Harranm the superb of Damascus, Syria.

[4] Leader of the Faithful

[5] were a powerful merchant tribe that controlled Mecca and its Ka’aba and that according to tradition descended from Ishmael.The Islamic prophet, Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe

[6] Sons of Amir Al-Mumenin, second and third Shiite Imams.

[7] Mufti- Sunni Scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law.

[8] Fatva’- Islamic Order or verdict about an issue

[9] Two of the three chief goddesses of Arabian religion in pre-Islamic times and was worshiped by the pre-Islamic Arabs along with Manāt.

[10] Two Asgaris Imams, Alī l-Hādī wa l-Ħassan al-‘Askarī. The Shrine is a Shī‘ah Muslim holy site in the Iraqi city of Sāmarrā 125 km from Baghdad. It is one of the most important Shī‘ah Shrines in the world, built in 944. Adjacent to the shrine is a mosque, which is called Al-Askari Mosque. The dome of the Shrine was destroyed in a bombing by extremists in February 2006 and its two remaining minarets were destroyed in another bombing in June 2007, causing widespread anger amongst Shī‘ah Muslims.

[11] The Sister of Imam Hussein (AS) and Imam Hassan (AS) and daughter of Imam Ali (AS)

[12] Dammam is the capital of Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

[13] Hoseinieh-places where Shiite hold mourning for Ah Albait.

[14] Husband, Father, , grandfather, brother or uncle

[15] Hijab is a veil that covers the head and chest, which is often worn by Muslim women beyond the age of puberty in the presence of adult males outside of their immediate family as a form of modest attire.

[16] A village situated in the Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Most of people in this region are Shiite.

[17] The Baghdad Central Prison, formerly known as Abu Ghraib prison was a prison complex in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km west of Baghdad.

[18] The Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, also referred to as Guantánamo, G-bay or GTMO, which fronts on Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.

 

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