Battle of Jamal (the Camel)
The behavior of Imam Ali during the Battle
During the battle, Imam (PBUH) was behaving his enemies graciously and magnanimously, to the extent that it would make the most tenacious enemies, admire him. After the war, a group of enemies, among which was Marwān ibn Ḥakam, told each other: “we have oppressed Ali and broke our allegiance toward him for nothing; but when he won the battle, he behaved us in a way that we had not seen from anybody before, except the Prophet. Let’s go to him and apologize.”
After the battle, Imam Ali ordered Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr to take her sister, Aisha, to the house of Bani-Khalaf, until they make a decision about her. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr said: “I took her, while she was swearing and cursing me and Ali and invoking God’s blessing on the Nakesin.”
When Ali decided to move toward Kufa (the Center of caliphate) after the battle, he ordered 40 women to wear men’s clothes and get armed and take Aisha to Medina. En-route, she was swearing Ali continuously that Ali has not respected the Prophet and his wife and is sending her to Medina along with men. When they reached Medina, one of the women, could not keep patience, came close and told her:
“Alas for you, Aisha! What you did was not enough? Now you are talking about Ali (PBUH) like this? Then other women came close and uncovered their faces. Aisha was ashamed when realized the truth and whispered ‘Inna Lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’un (We indeed belong to Allah, and we indeed toward Him are returning)’ and asked God’s forgiveness for what she had done and said: ‘God grant him good reward, for he kept the respect of the Prophet”.
Imam Ali said about her:
“Her thoughts and complexities toward me, made her do all this and annoy me in a way that she would not oppress anybody else. However she will have her past respect in the future. God will judge our deeds and will forgive whoever wants and punishes whoever wants.”
Ali (PBUH) ordered Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr: “Take your sister to Medina, then join me in Kufa, as soon as possible.”
So he took his sister Aisha to Media.
- Shiekh Mufid, Battle of Jamal, Islamic Information Office
- Sibt_ibn_al-Jawzi, Tazkirat ul-Khawas (Introduced eminence of the heirs of Muhammad The Prophet of Islam), Narrated by Seyed-Morteza Askari, Islamic Science Society, Vol.1, section of the Hadiths about Umm Al-Mu’minīn (Aisha)
Regret of Aisha, after the battle
After the war, Aisha was continuously repeating: “I wish I had died, 20 years before that event.”
Aisha said: “God bless Ali, he was righteous in fact…”
She repeatedly quoted this hadith from the Prophet: “God decreed, whoever fights against Ali, is unbeliever and will be placed in the hell.”
She said: “I wish I had mourned for 10 sons like Haris ibn-Hisham instead of accompanying Zubayr’s son [in that battle].
It is quoted from Ammara ibn-Omayr that someone had heard of Aisha and quoted him that: “Whenever she read this verse of Quran ‘And stay quietly in your houses…’ (33:33), she used to cry in a way that all over her veil became wet.”
It is quoted from Urwah that: “Whenever she remembered being in Jamal Battle, she would cry in a way that her veil became wet and said: ‘I wish I had been totally forgotten.”
It is mentioned in the book of Manaqib, quoted from Abu-atiq, that Aisha said: “Show me the son of Umar (Abdul-rahman), whenever he passes my house. When Umar passed, they informed her. She said: ‘O Abdul-rahman! Why did not you prevent me from that war?’ He answered: ‘I saw you are under influence of a man, whom you will never disagree [Abdullah ibn Zubayr was meant]. Aisha said: ‘If you had prevented me, I would never go to that battle.”
Many famous people visited Aisha after the battle. One of them was Qa’qa’ ibn Amr. During the visit, Aisha mentioned: ‘I swear to God that I wish I had died 20 years ago.”
Fath al-Bari, quoted from Muhammad Ibn Qays that: “Aisha [Once] recalled the battle of Jamal and said: ‘I wish I had stayed at home, just like others; it was more desirable for me than bearing 10 children from the Prophet and all of them were like Abd-ul-rahman ibn Haris ibn Hisham.
- Hafiz Suleyman Hanafi, Yanabi’ Ul-Mawaddah, Chapter III on Amity
- Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya, Vol.7, Hadith 14
- Ibn Athir, Al-Kāmil fit-Tārīkh (The Complete History), Vol.2
- Ibn Abi’l-Hadid, Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol.1
- Ibn A’tham, Al-Futūḥ, Vol.2
- Bayhaqi, Al-I’tiqad wal-Hidayah, p.246
- Hakim Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Vol.3, Hadith 4609
- Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat Al-Kubra (Major Classes), Vol.8
- Ibn Hanbal, al-Zuhd (The Book of Abstinence)
- Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-Ashraf (Genealogies of the Nobles), Vol.3
- Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ta’rikh Baghdad: The History of Baghdad, Vol.9, Item 4766
- Ibn_Shahrashub, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Hadith 218,
- Ibn_Shahrashub, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Hadith 220,
- Silsilat Ul-ahadith Ul-Sahiha (Series of correct Hadiths), Vol.1
- Al-Nuwayri, Niyahat ul-Arb fi Funun ul-Adab (The Ultimate Ambition in the Arts of Erudition),
- Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, Vol.13
- Ali al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id wa Manba’ al-Fawa’id, Vol.7, Item 1204
- Ali ibn al-Athir, Asd al-ġāba fī maʿrifat aṣ-ṣaḥāba, Vol.3, Item 3283
- Mohammad Ray Shahri , The encyclopedia of Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH), Vol.5
Disobedience of the Caliph
In the religious laws of Sunnites, disobeying the ruler and the caliph is not allowed, which requires a separate discussion, since Imam Ali (PBUH) was the caliph of the time. Here we mention just some issues in this regard:
من خَرَجَ من الطَّاعَةِ وَفَارَقَ الْجَمَاعَةَ فَمَاتَ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً…
The Prophet (PBUH) said: “He who disobeys the ruler and separates himself from the society [and passes away], is died like anyone who has died in ignorance era…”
- Sahih-Muslim, Vol.3, Hadith 1848
عن أبي ذَرٍّ قال قال رسول اللَّهِ صلي الله عليه وسلم من فَارَقَ الْجَمَاعَةَ شِبْراً خَلَعَ رِبْقَةَ الإِسْلاَمِ من عُنُقِهِ.
Abuzar quotes from the Prophet (PBUH) that said: “He who separates himself from the society only a span, has broken his bond with Islam.
- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol.5
- Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Vol.1
- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol.5
- Abu Bakr al-Khallal, Al-Sunnah, Vol.2
من خَلَعَ يَدًا من طَاعَةٍ لَقِيَ اللَّهَ يوم الْقِيَامَةِ لَا حُجَّةَ له وَمَنْ مَاتَ وَلَيْسَ في عُنُقِهِ بَيْعَةٌ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً.
The Prophet said: “He who leaves obeying a ruler, will meet the God in the Day of Judgement, with no proof and whoever passes away with no allegiance covenant, is died like someone who has died in ignorance days.”
- Sahih-Muslim, Vol.3
And numerous other references….
Praise be upon Allah who made us of the clingers to the Wilayah of the Amir ul-Muminin Ali ibn-AbiTaleb (PBUH)
Compiled by Zeitoon